Example Projects:

U.S. Forest Service Projects

E&S Environmental Chemistry works with the U.S. Forest Service nationwide. Listed below are some selected projects we have recently completed. Please contact us for more information.

Critical Loads in National Forests

E&S Environmental Chemistry has conducted multiple projects for the U.S. Forest Service that model the critical load of atmospheric sulfur deposition needed to protect and restore acid-sensitive streams in West Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Critical water chemistry target criteria were selected to protect brook trout, other more sensitive fish species, and stream benthic invertebrates against acidification damage. In a follow-up study, E&S is investigating the effects of acidic deposition, tree harvesting, and forest liming on the supply of calcium and other base cations in forest soils in North Carolina and Tennessee.

The final report is available for downloading here.

Effects of Stressors on Base Cation Supply in the Southeastern U.S.

The objective of this study was to use the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) for a group of 65 streams and their watersheds in the southern Appalachian Mountains to address a number of questions related to soil base cation (Bc) status. The MAGIC model was used to quantify the extent to which base cation mobilization, leaching, and cycling affect nutrient availability in soils and acid neutralization in soil water and stream water. This study focused on relatively acid-sensitive watersheds, and the primary goal was to evaluate the potential drivers on an individual basis.


National Sampling and Analysis Protocols

The U.S. Forest Service studies and monitors the chemistry and biology of lakes and streams across the United States that are sensitive to, or impacted by, atmospheric deposition of acidifying substances, nutrients, and toxic materials. Previously, there were no standard protocols for collecting water samples, designing studies, analyzing the samples in the laboratory, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), analyzing and graphing the resulting data, or investigating effects on aquatic invertebrates. E&S addressed this deficiency by preparing national protocols for the Forest Service Air Program.

The final report may be downloaded from the U.S. Forest Service website.