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The European VSD+PROPS model was applied to estimate changes in understory vegetation in response to changes in climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition at three forested sites in the eastern United States.

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The dynamic coupled biogeochemical/ecological model chain ForSAFE-Veg was used to evaluate ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition in the context of a changing climate at two hardwood forest sites in the eastern United States.

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Increases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have resulted in increases in the associated atmospheric deposition of acidic compounds.

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E&S scientist Timothy Sullivan worked with scientists from the State University of New York and U.S. Geological Survey to measure how the chronic acidification of forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society.

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The ForSAFE-VEG model was applied to estimate changes in soil chemistry and ground vegetation of a generalized plant community in the alpine and subalpine zones of the Rocky Mountains region of the United States during the period 1750-2400 AD in response to changes in air pollution and climate.

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E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc., working together with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and under the direction of the USDA Forest Service (USFS), is assisting the USFS in the development of a decision-support system (DSS) for critical loads (CL) of atmospheric sulfur (S) deposition in the southeastern United States.

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Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States increasingly relies on two resource damage/recovery paradigms: ecosystem service (ES) and critical load (CL).

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Most efforts to quantify aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem damage from sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) air pollution in the Adirondack Mountains and to examine more recent ecosystem recovery in response to emissions control have focused on lakewater chemistry.

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E&S developed model applications to evaluate effects (and cross-cutting linkages) of multiple stressors on base cation supply

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The critical load (CL) is the level of sustained atmospheric deposition of S, N, or acidity below which significant harm to sensitive ecosystems does not occur according to current scientific understanding. For the sensitive receptor stream water, the most commonly selected chemical indicator is acid neutralizing capacity (ANC).

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