E&S provides ecosystem modeling services to investigate natural resource sensitivity to, and effects from, environmental stressors. We have a wide variety of statistical and process-based modeling tools available for addressing scientific and policy/management questions. Our clients are interested in understanding current and expected future resource conditions at a broad scale and we will often blend statistical and process-level techniques to enhance our ability to extrapolate site specific model results to the broader region. Our modeling work is typically centered on addressing questions related to effects of climate change and atmospheric deposition on biological and chemical conditions of lakes, streams, and forest soils.


E&S scientists are at the forefront of national efforts to model the effects of acid and nutrient pollutants on sensitive ecosystems and to quantify the critical load of pollutants to protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems across the United States. We are also experienced using models to characterize stream temperature conditions for evaluating suitable habitat for temperature sensitive cool water species such as brook trout.

Our modeling projects occur at the interface between research and public policy decision making and/or natural resource management. E&S has developed and applied modeling approaches throughout the United States for a variety of clients including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. This work results in the preparation and publication of scientific journal articles, technical reports, outreach summaries, books, and material for websites.

We provide the following types of ecosystem modeling services:

    • Scenario modeling to evaluate chemical and biological effects in response to potential future climatic conditions, resource management, or environmental policies
    • Critical loads and target loads modeling to protect aquatic and terrestrial biota from nutrient enrichment and/or acidification effects from air pollution
    • Stream temperature modeling to evaluate suitable habitat for temperature sensitive species
    • Extrapolation of site-specific process-based model results to the broader landscape